Saturday, May 30, 2020

New Study Fdic Insured 529 Plans

Savingforcollege.com's latest study, FDIC-insured products in the 529 marketplace, includes a review and comparison of the available college savings plans offering investment options insured by the Federal Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Because they are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government up to certain limits, FDIC-insured products are suitable for conservative investors interested in preserving capital without taking on excess risk. Currently, there are 23 plans that offer an FDIC-insured investment option, which include savings accounts and bank certificates of deposits (CDs). The study finds that yield on FDIC-insurance products vary widely, ranging from 0.03% to 0.92% for savings portfolios to 0.25% to 2.00% for CDs, depending on the duration. Total annual asset based fees for plans offering an FDIC-insured product ranged from 0.00% to 0.67%, and nine plans charge account maintenance fees unless certain conditions are met. At the time of the study, the Utah Educational Savings Plan offered the highest APY net of fees, at 0.92%, followed by Arizona's Bank Plan (0.90%) and Indiana's CollegeChoice CD 529 Savings Plan (0.90%), both managed by College Savings Bank. The study also examined cost versus returns, looking at published fees as reported by the plans. A wide disparity and lack of correlation was found between expense ratios and yield, where plans with no fees, including Ohio's CollegeAdvantage Direct 529, the Bank Plan and CollegeChoice CD achieved the highest yields with zero fees, and Achieve Montana, which has above-average costs and a low yield. FDIC-insured products in the 529 marketplace was administered by Savingforcollege.com and sponsored by College Savings Bank, a division of NexBank SSB. Click here to download the complete report Savingforcollege.com's latest study, FDIC-insured products in the 529 marketplace, includes a review and comparison of the available college savings plans offering investment options insured by the Federal Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Because they are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government up to certain limits, FDIC-insured products are suitable for conservative investors interested in preserving capital without taking on excess risk. Currently, there are 23 plans that offer an FDIC-insured investment option, which include savings accounts and bank certificates of deposits (CDs). The study finds that yield on FDIC-insurance products vary widely, ranging from 0.03% to 0.92% for savings portfolios to 0.25% to 2.00% for CDs, depending on the duration. Total annual asset based fees for plans offering an FDIC-insured product ranged from 0.00% to 0.67%, and nine plans charge account maintenance fees unless certain conditions are met. At the time of the study, the Utah Educational Savings Plan offered the highest APY net of fees, at 0.92%, followed by Arizona's Bank Plan (0.90%) and Indiana's CollegeChoice CD 529 Savings Plan (0.90%), both managed by College Savings Bank. The study also examined cost versus returns, looking at published fees as reported by the plans. A wide disparity and lack of correlation was found between expense ratios and yield, where plans with no fees, including Ohio's CollegeAdvantage Direct 529, the Bank Plan and CollegeChoice CD achieved the highest yields with zero fees, and Achieve Montana, which has above-average costs and a low yield. FDIC-insured products in the 529 marketplace was administered by Savingforcollege.com and sponsored by College Savings Bank, a division of NexBank SSB. Click here to download the complete report

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Pulque, Ancient Mesoamerican Sacred Drink

Pulque is a viscous, milk-colored, alcoholic beverage produced by fermenting the sap obtained by the maguey plant. Until the 19th and 20th centuries, it was probably the most widespread alcoholic beverage in Mexico. In ancient Mesoamerica, pulque was a beverage restricted to certain groups of people and to certain occasions. The consumption of pulque was linked to feasting and ritual ceremonies, and many Mesoamerican cultures produced a rich iconography illustrating the production and consumption of this beverage. The Aztec called this beverage ixtac octli which means white liquor. The name pulque is probably a corruption of the term octli poliuhqui or over-fermented or spoiled liquor. Pulque Production The juicy sap, or aguamiel, is extracted from the plant. An agave plant is productive for up to a year and,  usually, the sap is collected twice a day. Neither fermented pulque nor the straight aguamiel can be stored for a  long time; the liquor needs to be consumed quickly and even the processing place needs to be close to the field. The fermentation starts in the plant itself  since the microorganisms occurring naturally in the maguey plant start the process of transforming the sugar into alcohol. The fermented sap was traditionally collected using dried bottle gourds, and it was then poured into large ceramic jars where the seeds of the plant were added to accelerate the fermentation process. Among the Aztecs/Mexica, pulque was a highly desired item, obtained through tribute. Many codices refer to the importance of this drink for nobility and priests, and its role in the Aztec economy. Pulque Consumption In ancient Mesoamerica, pulque was consumed during feasting or ritual ceremonies and was also offered to the gods. Its consumption was strictly regulated. Ritual drunkenness was allowed only by priests and warriors, and commoners were permitted to drink it only during certain occasions. The elderly and occasionally pregnant women were allowed to drink it. In the Quetzalcoatl myth, the god is tricked into drinking pulque and his drunkenness caused him to be banished and exiled from his land. According to indigenous and colonial sources, different types of pulque existed, often flavored with other ingredients such as chili peppers. Pulque Imagery Pulque is depicted in Mesoamerican iconography as white foam emerging from small, rounded pots and vessels. A small stick, similar to a straw, is often depicted within the drinking pot, probably representing a stirring instrument used to produce the foam. Images of pulque-making are recorded in many codices, murals and even rock carvings, such as the ball court at El Tajin. One of the most famous representations of the pulque drinking ceremony is at the pyramid of Cholula, in Central Mexico. The Mural of the Drinkers In 1969, a 180 feet long mural was discovered by accident in the pyramid of Cholula. The collapse of a wall exposed part of the mural buried at a depth of almost 25 feet. The mural, dubbed the Mural of the Drinkers, portrays a feasting scene with figures wearing elaborate turbans and masks drinking pulque and performing other ritual activities. It has been suggested that the scene portrays pulque deities. The origin of pulque is narrated in many myths, most of them linked to the goddess of maguey, Mayahuel. Other deities directly related to pulque were the got Mixcoatl and the Centzon Totochtin (the 400 rabbits), sons of Mayahuel associated with the pulque’s effects. Sources Bye, Robert A., and Edelmina Linares, 2001, Pulque, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures, vol. 1, edited by David Carrasco, Oxford University Press.pp: 38-40Taube, Karl, 1996, Las Origines del Pulque, Arqueologà ­a Mexicana, 4 (20): 71

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

New Tax Policies Imposed On The Colonies Essay - 2365 Words

In 1765 Boston life in the colonies has been relatively tranquil certainly it has for Thomas Hutchinson a fifth-generation Bostonian. Hutchinson has enjoyed good fortune and political success. The King appoints him Chief Justice and lieutenant governor of Massachusetts. For years Thomas Hutchinson has been one of the colonies, most admired citizens until now. Hutchinson s life is about to take a dramatic and ugly turn an angry mob is surging through Boston and Hutchinson is about to find out that he s the man they are after. He s the man in charge of the Intolerable new policies imposed on the colonies by their British rulers, tax policies that have incited an increasingly violent rebellion among the people, a rebellion against attacks imposed not by their own local representatives but by Parliament 3,000 miles away in England. Lieutenant governor Hutchinson is duty bound to enforce this controversial new tax, even though he personally opposes it. He is being denounced as a traitor. Massachusetts has never seen a mob as violent as this, they re not just angry about the money, they re angry at the assault on their Autonomy by English rulers who neither know them nor represent them. The revolt spreads like an epidemic through all 13 colonies, it s hard to imagine that the fallout from this tax will ignite a social revolution unlike any other world has ever seen. Across the Atlantic England s King George the third is losing his patience, his colonies are acting like aShow MoreRelatedAmerican Of British Policies After 1775764 Words   |  4 PagesBritish Policies before 1775 There were several ways in which the American Colonies resisted Imperial policy before 1775, which led to the American Revolution. Britain’s taxation and infringement of basic rights of the colonists unified the colonies. Many significant events, including the Stamp Act, the Intolerable Acts, the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, occurred before 1775. In 1764, the British Parliament, under Prime Minister George Grenville, passed the Sugar Act, to raise tax revenueRead MoreA Lot Happened Between 1760 And 1776 Essay1371 Words   |  6 Pagesideals crystallized and economics policies were the essence of many debates. The British found the colonists unwilling to pay their fair share for the administration of the Empire. After all, citizens residing in England paid more in taxes than was asked of any American during the entire time of crisis. Between 1760 and 1776, British formulated some policies that would make the colonist pay their fair share for the administration of the Kingdom. Some of these policies were; the Sugar Act of 1764, theRead MoreThe Reasons For The British War889 Words   |  4 Pageswhen it came down to the policies they imposed on the Colonists. With every new policy or tax the British enforced on the Colonists the worse the resistance became. The British didn’t decrease the amount of taxation on the Colonists when they saw that it angered them, in fact they made more. The harsh policies first started when George Grenville became prime minister in 1763, he believed the Colonists should have to pay for the administration and military of the new world, which of course ledRead MoreThe French And Indian War On The Relationship894 Words   |  4 Pagesand its American Colonies The years of 1754-1763 were turbulent ones in North America. Restlessness took form in the French and Indian war, where French land in North America was fought over. When the war ended, the French land was ceded over to England and Spain, which resulted in serious alterations in the relationship between Britain and the American colonies. The French and Indian war changed the characteristics of British taxation which united the previously separated colonies against a commonRead MoreMajor Events Of The American Revolution1649 Words   |  7 Pagesafter the hostilities were over. Britain’s main policy leading up to the French and Indian War had been a policy of mercantilism. Under mercantilism, Britain promoted whatever policies and procedures would most allow it to build the national treasury. Raw materials from the American colonies were bought at cheap prices and sent to Britain. In Britain, these raw materials would be fashioned into goods which would be sold back to the colonies for a higher profit. As long as this system allowedRead MoreThe French And Indian War967 Words   |  4 PagesIndian War the British gained all of the French land in North America. Following the war the British government revoked certain liberties of the colonies, they increased economic regulation, and exerted greater control over the colonies. Therefore, the aftermath of the French and Indian War caused a decline in relations between Britain and the thirteen colonies. The colonists had a friendly majority attitude toward the British at the beginning of the French and Indian War. For example, General WashingtonRead MoreGrievances Of The American Colonists Against Great Britain Essay1639 Words   |  7 Pagesof the coercive acts, which the British Government perpetrated on the colony through series of legislative acts by the British Parliament. Prior to the acts that the colonists in America termed as atrocious and oppressive, they were willing to cooperate and reaffirm loyalty to the King of England. Some of the legislations and declarations that colonists participated in was the sustenance of British soldiers in the colony, payment of import tariffs and other forms of taxes to support the BritishRead MoreThe United States Tax System1576 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States tax system has an extensive history that has transformed from a modest system to a complex taxation system over the years. From the beginning, the tax system has undergone changes due to past wars, inclusion of social programs, changes to social programs, presidential views, and economic fluctuations. Every tax year, the tax laws continue to change from the methods of the past. In the years of the 1600’s and the middle 1700’s, the English settlers were the dominant people whoRead MoreEconomic Restraints And The American Revolution1171 Words   |  5 PagesWinthrop stated the purpose of the colonies, We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us. The passengers on the boat that left England had a vision, to be an example for the rest of the world. And for over 100 years, Great Britain ruled over these colonies, under the undocumented policy of salutary neglect. Salutary neglect was a long standing policy that allowed the colonists to violate the laws of trade. However, the British reversed this policy to raise taxes for the debtsRead MoreThe Success Of The Boston Tea Party Essay1707 Words   |  7 PagesDecember 16th 1773, 5,000 people gathered at the Old South Meeting House to plan the Boston Tea Party. This essay will examine the causes of the movement, the ships, how the Sons of Liberty arrived to destroying the te a, the loyalty whether to the colonies or Britain, the damage and the influence it has today. The Sons of Liberty were made up of males from all spheres in the colonial society, they were laborers, tradesmen, and even artisans, all determined to defend their rights and undermine the British

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Discursive Construction of Strategists System †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss abut the Discursive Construction of Strategists System. Answer: Introduction: Alignment amongst all levels of an organization is as important as maintaining the alignment of the organization and its strategies (Friedli, Mundt and Thomas 2014). The smooth running of an organization depends upon the level of communication amongst each external and internal processes, throughout the managerial levels. Aligning strategies of a Company with its employees on one hand, and external dependents on the other, is a complex and herculean task. The various challenges faced in the process of applying strategies include aligning the strategies of a Company with the changing business scenario and evolving business goals, as well as within the managerial and production processes. The operational sector of a business management includes the Production, Logistics, IT, Finance, Marketing, Sales and Services processes. All the Value-driven activities that help with the delivery of services are categorised under the operational sector. The strategy engine of a company looks after the maximisation of the utility of resources applied. The strategy analyses external market scenario and suggests potential changes that could align the external conditions with the internal organizational strategy. A balance between the two sectors would ensure a smooth running of an organization, taking care of the quantity as well as the quality of production. Strategy lenses are the four distinguished angles from which an organizational strategy can be analyseddesign, experience, idea and discourse (Balogun et al. 2014). The design lens carefully evaluates the external and internal opportunities and threats of a company and hence helps to devise an appropriate strategy and clear direction. However, most of this is used in top-managerial levels, alienating the rest of the operational process employees. The experience lens looks at company strategies in light of previous strategies, practical experiences, culture, and values. This approach is more accurate than design lens but runs the risk of drifting into undesirable circumstances in the process of practical implementation. The lens of idea emphasizes on innovation and diversity of ideas with the changing market environment. It stresses on the way the internal members of the organization handle and respond to the changes in external and internal environment (Wong and Bajuri 2013). The lens of discourse looks at various available possibilities and chooses the most appropriate approach based on its legitimacy and rationality. It is important to strike a balance amongst all these lenses so that none of the conflicting strategies remains in the system (Dameron and Torset 2014). Too much emphasis in any one less would mean the exclusion of some other. In an ideal business setup, all four lenses are used to evaluate the strategies of a Company. As a curious student of business management and an aspiring business entrepreneur, enrolling for Masters of Science in Management programme at the University of Liverpool enabled and inspired me in more than one ways. It opened me the scope to participate in a global, online community of learners from all over the world. This exposure calls for a healthy transaction of ideas and knowledge, helping with an over-all progress. It connected me with other employees who share similar professional goals and interests. Working and learning with like-minded people enhances the effectiveness of knowledge. This helped me collaborate with various perspectives and new ideas in order to achieve the desired goals. Overcoming practical challenges with the help and support from fellow colleagues would give space for sharing concerns regarding how to perform better as an online Masters student. Therefore, joining this particular course has been immensely helpful for me. References Balogun, J., Jacobs, C., Jarzabkowski, P., Mantere, S. and Vaara, E., 2014. Placing strategy discourse in context: Sociomateriality, sensemaking, and power. Journal of Management Studies,51(2), pp.175-201. Dameron, S. and Torset, C., 2014. The discursive construction of strategists' subjectivities: Towards a paradox lens on strategy.Journal of Management Studies,51(2), pp.291-319. Friedli, T., Mundt, A. and Thomas, S., 2014.Strategic management of global manufacturing networks: Aligning strategy, configuration, and coordination. Springer. Wong, Y.C. and Bajuri, N.H., 2013. Corporate governance: Board structure, information technology and csr reporting.Sains Humanika,64(2).

Friday, April 17, 2020

Women are just as Violent as Men an Example by

Women are just as Violent as Men When we heard of domestic violence, it usually registers in our minds that women are victims. Most of the reported crimes, men are the assailants and women are the victims. Beyond our knowledge, there are numerous cases where men are abused by their partners but decided to remain silent about it. Need essay sample on "Women are just as Violent as Men" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Most of us think that the level of violence inflicted on men by women is less serious than that inflicted by women (Straus, M. 1993). That is why when women are abusive; some of us think that women are just being defensive of themselves against men. Our society seemed to harbor an implicit acceptance of womens violence as relatively harmless, according to Maguire, J. (1999). Men chose to remain silent of their situation because of embarrassment. Men feel that people will not believe their stories. Due to this, rate of men being abused by women is difficult to estimate due to cases that are not reported and filed which leaves the whole story on women being abused by their partners Violence against men may start from actions such as shoving, pushing, and throwing objects; later on, it may turn into verbal abuse. It shows that men are more deeply affected by the cruel words that women might say such as coward and failure rather physical actions. Men can endure physical violence that women may give for they are tougher than women. In a more detailed way, women are just as violent as men. Psychological problem such as personality disorder often makes a woman characteristically abusive and violent. Women may also be suicidal and have severe mood swings which often result to being violent. Frustrations and depression can be expressed by women easier than men do. Women can be very vocal and violent about what they are feeling. Womens violence, psychologically speaking, can be interpreted easier than men. Their mental and emotional condition is a result of their own insecurities. Women have the need to create unrealistic expectations and demands towards men wherein they become violent when men were unable to provide or meet their demands. Unlike battered women who will do everything just to get out of the bad relationship, abused men chose to stay because they consider factors such as protecting their children from their wives or partners, they feel guilty about the situation and they think that they deserve the treatment that they are getting from their wives or partners, or they are dependent on women, regardless if it is emotional, mental, or financial dependency. References Gelbes, R. (1987). Family Violence. Beverly Hills: Sage. Lewontin, R.C. (1995). Sex, Lies, and Social Science. The New York Review of Books. Maguire, J. (1999). Are Women More Violent than Men? Violence Against Men is Ignored. Massachusetts News. Straus, M. (1993). Physical Assault by Wives, A Major Social Problem. Current Controversies on Family Violence. Sage Publications.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Free Essays on School Uniforms

Public school systems across the country are now requiring students to wear uniforms. Can uniforms really make a difference in a child’s academic performance? Wouldn't uniforms infringe the child’s creativity and self expression? The clothes don't make the child right (Hempill A15)? Wrong. School uniforms can drastically reduce school violence and help a student to focus on school work. In 1996, President Clinton endorsed public school uniforms in his State of the Union Address(Atkins 42). This created a rage among some education critics across the country. Critics complain that uniforms will lessen children’s individualism and creativity, infringing students’ rights and hint of racism. While proponents believe, uniforms will put the students emphasis on schoolwork instead of dressing coolly, and they will help to lower school violence. The idea comes from a Californian elementary school in Long Beach. In 1994, Long Beach became the country's first public school district to institute a mandatory uniform policy"(Atkins 42). The results were so promising that they lead to the President’s endorsement. The school saw a fifty-one percent drop in physical fights, a thirty-four percent drop in assaults and batteries, a fifty percent drop in weapons offenses, and a thirty-two percent drop in school suspensions(Mancini 65). All this in a time span of only one year. Proving that a child’s clothes does make a difference in school violence. In a time when school children are getting killed for designer jackets and shoes, uniforms are exactly what our children need(Mancini 63). Critics say that school uniform inhibit self expression. If you take away a child's self expression through clothing, you force that child to express his or herself in other ways. This might even force a child to resort to even more violent forms of expression, like through writing and art. In today’s society, students are fightin... Free Essays on School Uniforms Free Essays on School Uniforms School Uniforms Years ago I would argue that wearing school uniforms infringes on freedom of self- expression and individuality however now that I’m older I support the wearing of school uniforms in public school at the elementary, middle and also high-school levels. School uniforms may not solve the problem of violence or disruptive behavior in the public schools, but it is a step in the right direction. The implementation of uniforms can promote good order and discipline, communicate respect, reduce the competition/envy of brand-name clothing, and provide a serious learning environment. Peer pressure in school can be overwhelming. At times peer pressure can entice students to do things they may not normally do. Keeping with "In-Style" clothing and accessories at school can be emotionally taxing to students and expensive to the parents. These types of problems sometimes overshadow the importance of academics in public schools. No one ever wants to be ridiculed for what type of clothing he or she may wear to school. Some children who go to public schools may come from low-income families, which make them stand out amongst their peers. School uniforms can help minimize some of these problems. They help decrease the destructive competition among students to wear the stylish outfits. The uniforms can help low-income children feel more apart of the school environment. Uniforms can also be financially beneficial to families, Instead of buying our children brand-name shoes and designer clothing, parents could be buying a few sets of uniforms and buy trendy clothing for aft er school wear. Most local retailers offer school uniforms at affordable prices. In some areas such as Baltimore Maryland parents can submit a request to the school for their children to receive financial aid with clothing in order to adhere to the school uniform policy. School uniforms inspire students to become apart of a team, rather than being a single player. Some ... Free Essays on School Uniforms Implementing School Uniforms â€Å"A child was brutally beaten today when he fought back against another student who tried to steal his brand new sneakers.† This is a headline that is becoming all too familiar to us. In the past few years, city schools have had a number of serious problems concerning students being ridiculed or being attacked simply because of their attire. School used to be a safe place for children to learn during the day. Students should not be afraid to attend school, but often that is the case. They have to live with the fear of being hurt or ridiculed by the other students that deem them to be different. Many times in our society the class structure is often exposed through material items. Children are often shielded from this, but it becomes evident in the clothes they wear to school. Whether it is a rich kid who finds himself in danger for having more, or a poor kid who is ridiculed for not having enough, this is a problem that needs to be solved. School officials in many c ity schools have begun to regulate this problem by making it mandatory that the students wear uniforms. This is a valid solution to a problem that many times prevents children from receiving a proper education. Uniforms should be implemented to prevent these circumstances, which have an enormous affect on the educating process in our public schools throughout the nation. When you hear about the violence that plagues today’s schools, uniforms are usually the first applicable solution to the problem. Uniforms continue to be an upcoming issue in the minds of school officials, parents, and even the President. In the article titled, â€Å"Uniforms, Expulsions Not Just for Private Schools† it states that; President Bill Clinton promoted uniforms in public schools in his State of the Union Address in January or 1996, when he praised them as â€Å"a way to promote safety and discipline in schools†. Clinton also stated: I challenge al... Free Essays on School Uniforms School Uniforms Years ago I would argue that wearing school uniforms infringes on freedom of self- expression and individuality however now that I’m older I support the wearing of school uniforms in public school at the elementary, middle and also high-school levels. School uniforms may not solve the problem of violence or disruptive behavior in the public schools, but it is a step in the right direction. The implementation of uniforms can promote good order and discipline, communicate respect, reduce the competition/envy of brand-name clothing, and provide a serious learning environment. Peer pressure in school can be overwhelming. At times peer pressure can entice students to do things they may not normally do. Keeping with "In-Style" clothing and accessories at school can be emotionally taxing to students and expensive to the parents. These types of problems sometimes overshadow the importance of academics in public schools. No one ever wants to be ridiculed for what type of clothing he or she may wear to school. Some children who go to public schools may come from low-income families, which make them stand out amongst their peers. School uniforms can help minimize some of these problems. They help decrease the destructive competition among students to wear the stylish outfits. The uniforms can help low-income children feel more apart of the school environment. Uniforms can also be financially beneficial to families, Instead of buying our children brand-name shoes and designer clothing, parents could be buying a few sets of uniforms and buy trendy clothing for aft er school wear. Most local retailers offer school uniforms at affordable prices. In some areas such as Baltimore Maryland parents can submit a request to the school for their children to receive financial aid with clothing in order to adhere to the school uniform policy. School uniforms inspire students to become apart of a team, rather than being a single player. Some ... Free Essays on School Uniforms Public school systems across the country are now requiring students to wear uniforms. Can uniforms really make a difference in a child’s academic performance? Wouldn't uniforms infringe the child’s creativity and self expression? The clothes don't make the child right (Hempill A15)? Wrong. School uniforms can drastically reduce school violence and help a student to focus on school work. In 1996, President Clinton endorsed public school uniforms in his State of the Union Address(Atkins 42). This created a rage among some education critics across the country. Critics complain that uniforms will lessen children’s individualism and creativity, infringing students’ rights and hint of racism. While proponents believe, uniforms will put the students emphasis on schoolwork instead of dressing coolly, and they will help to lower school violence. The idea comes from a Californian elementary school in Long Beach. In 1994, Long Beach became the country's first public school district to institute a mandatory uniform policy"(Atkins 42). The results were so promising that they lead to the President’s endorsement. The school saw a fifty-one percent drop in physical fights, a thirty-four percent drop in assaults and batteries, a fifty percent drop in weapons offenses, and a thirty-two percent drop in school suspensions(Mancini 65). All this in a time span of only one year. Proving that a child’s clothes does make a difference in school violence. In a time when school children are getting killed for designer jackets and shoes, uniforms are exactly what our children need(Mancini 63). Critics say that school uniform inhibit self expression. If you take away a child's self expression through clothing, you force that child to express his or herself in other ways. This might even force a child to resort to even more violent forms of expression, like through writing and art. In today’s society, students are fightin...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Business Decision Making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Business Decision Making - Essay Example In principle, theory X is based on the view of workers as essentially lazy. The theory supports the notion that workers will seek all opportunities to avoid work or responsibility. The objective of any worker, according to this theory, is the obtaining of money that comes from his duties. This theory advocates for the use of threats and coercion in forcing the element of motivation within the workers. Motivation, in line with this theory is a consequence of fear arising out of the threat and coercion (Ramlall, 2004). On the other hand, theory Y bases its tenets on the view of humans as naturally progressive. The theory contends that humans will seek excellence, responsibility, and self-actualization if given the opportunity. The level of competence of any worker is dependent on the kind of incentives and the conducive nature of environment that supports the spirit of industriousness and enterprise. This theory holds the view that motivation will arise from the sum of incentives that aim at developing the skills and commitment of the worker in line with the specific duties in which he engages. This theory promotes a closer cooperation between the workers and management in ways that eliminate friction and misunderstanding between the two categories. It also includes aspects of human resource development through such processes as training and the engagement in certain activities as rewards and promotion to spur the interest of the workers towards the pursuit of excellence. The Goal Setting theory of motivation developed by Edwin Locke in the 1960s is another key theory that attracts the interest of management scholars in many fields of business and management (Simone & Patricia, 2008). According to this theory, the aspect of motivation is driven by the pursuit of some specific goals. The worker will often engage his skills, effort, and energy to levels that are consistent with the nature of the goal. The theory proposes that the goals have to be clear and precise in order to engage the interest and motivation of the worker. Vague and ambiguous goals, according to this theory, will not achieve the aspect of motivation that is necessary for the pursuit of the desired ends of a given process. This theory also opposes the setting of easy goals will diminish the efforts of the worker as they can be achieved without the input of much effort (Simone & Patricia, 2008). The goal-setting theory is usually dependent on the aspect of human character. According to the proponents of the theory, human beings love challenges and would seek opportunities of self-actualization and a sense of accomplishment through the pursuit of challenges as defined in specific goals. Achieving a given goal often results in feelings of confidence in the worker while failure to achieve the goals may result in feelings of inadequacy leading to effort increment or change of strategy. In essence, this theory promotes the actualization of the latent potentials in individuals by s ubjecting them to challenges that expose their inner strengths and hidden capabilities. Humans, according to this theory will often adjust their levels of commitment and effort in line with the nature of challenges placed before them. Self-Determination theory of motivation relates to the psychological impetus in human beings to seek ways